Ghana, a nation on West Africa's Gulf of Guinea, is known for diverse wildlife, old forts and secluded beaches, such as at Busua. Coastal towns Elmina and Cape Coast contain posubans (native shrines), colonial buildings and castles-turned-museums that serve as testimonials to the slave trade. North of Cape Coast, vast Kakum National Park has a treetop-canopy walkway over the rainforest.Read More
SA’s youth a time bomb: Here are some interesting statistics regarding the youth, their numbers and their unemployment which may interest some readers. The article is not really about race – it’s actually about numbers of the youth – but thanks to Stats SA who do still base their reports on race this is the way it comes out.Read More
I have extracted and condensed the figures to highlight the youth – the future of the country, the figures being courtesy of Statistics SA, 2014:
Black – 4,936,601
Coloured – 420,171,
Asian – 99,256,
White – 263,301;
Black – 4,541,523,
Coloured – 428,867,
Asian – 96,953,
White – 269,367;
Black – 4,303,892,
Coloured – 444,983,
Asian – 93,863,
White – 280,988;
Black – 4,357,984,
Coloured – 451,117,
Asian – 101,609,
White – 306,851;
Black – 4,417,106,
Coloured – 427,547,
Asian – 109,668,
White – 312,797.
Blacks – 22,557,106,
Coloureds – 2,172,685,
Asian – 501,349,
White – 1,433,304.
Blacks – 84,6%,
Coloureds – 8,2%,
Asian – 1,8%,
White – 5,4%.
Comparatively the ratios for the entire population are
2,5% Asian and
Total population being 54m. If one had to plot the birth rate of the youth, dating back to 1990, from the above table, one would note the following: The figures for White, Coloured and Asian youth have remained fairly static since 1990, whilst those for the Blacks have increased steadily since 2005 to a point where they now account for almost 85% of their age group. Since 1990 the numbers of Black youth – aged 0-24 – have increased by 11% whilst those of the Coloureds, Asians and Whites have decreased by 1%, 9% and 15% respectively. Simply put, the Black birth rate is increasing fast – steadily – that of Coloureds is decreasing slowly, that of Asians decreased between 1990 and 2005 but is now increasing slightly again and the White birth rate is declining rapidly – and steadily – and has been doing so since 1990.
We can thus estimate that by 2030 – based on current growth – for the age group 0-24 there will be 91 Blacks, 7 Coloureds, 1 Asian and 1 White in every group of 100 youngsters. Those who thus keep harping on about driving the Whites into the sea should not bother anymore as we’re disappearing fast anyway and by 2030 are liable to account for less than 2% of the total population. The bad news of course is that starvation, unemployment and misery are likely to still be present, but they’ll apply generally only to Blacks – their being over 90% of the population by that stage – and generally to young Blacks. At present there are in fact 4,9 million Black youngsters aged 0-4 whereas the total white population is 4,5 million.
Consider also that there are another 4,5 million Black youngsters aged 5-9, another 4,3 million aged 10-14 and another 4,3 million aged 15-19 – hopefully all at school – and you begin to see the enormity of the challenge facing the country and the government in attempting to feed, house, educate and otherwise sustain such numbers. Regarding unemployment amongst the youth – calculated at 48% across the board by Stats SA – it would seem that of a total population for this group of 10,4 million, 5 million are thus unemployed, and even more disturbing is that at least 4,2 million of these are Black. Considering that the entire White population is about 4,5 million this is a figure that should worry all with regard to education, crime, service delivery, government expenditure, job creation and socio-economic woes.
The above all give us pointers to where the country is going and most importantly what problems can be foreseen. The youth – aged 15-24 – currently account for 20% of the total population, some 10 million of them, whilst the young – aged 0-14 – form 30% of the population and number some 16 million. Add these two groups together – 50% of the entire population and 26 million in number – and you see the size of the problem facing us unless jobs are created, fast, or the Black birth rate is slowed. Quite noticeably, AIDS hasn’t had the effect it was claimed it would have and as a result the young Black population is exploding way beyond what the country can cope with, now or in the future. Unfortunately it would seem that the government, AKA the ANC, are either unaware or uncaring of this growing problem when they should be seriously worried for grants, subsidies, education, housing, services – all things relating to this age group in fact – are going to eat an increasingly larger portion of their budget, regardless of what they do now.
The South African economy needs to grow fast, starting now, if it is going to absorb another 26 million job seekers over the next 15 years. We can’t export them, we have to create jobs for them! For this reason alone the government should be actively creating an environment wherein jobs can be easily created, they should be attempting to slow the Black birth rate and they should be concentrating on creating capitalistic solutions for hungry mouths, rather than attempting to instil socialistic ideas in an exploding population of young hopefuls. If they are not doing so, and to all intents and purposes it seems they are not, then SA is heading for a huge problem, notwithstanding Eskom and the rest , in that there will be more young people than there will be enough food, drink, housing, education and services to cater for them. Socialism is definitely not going to feed that many mouths and grants and subsidies will eventually cripple any future government.
Voke, 23, was born in a sub-standard health facility, almost lost his Mum at birth, attended fairly good basic education schools and struggled to gain an admission into the University to study Biochemistry, though He'd put in for Medicine. He went on, struggled through the University, got sexually abused but fought to stay alive and see his dreams come true. He is now a graduate, with no job but exploring his digital media skills, aiming to employ others and hoping to inspire the world with his African story.Read More
This is the story of many Nigerian youths who are faced with numerous problems from their first till last breath. I cry when I think about the seemingly insurmountable challenges the Nigerian youth faces daily and the biggest challenge we face, in my opinion is INSECURITY.
The Nigerian youth battles "Emotional Insecurities", leading some into abusive relationships, pre-marital sex, abortions and out of wedlock childbirth vividly exemplified by the young celebrities. We are also faced with "Academic and Career Insecurities", a situation where the Academic system is grossly sub-standard and teeming youths remain unemployed years after graduating with good grades. Nigerian youths are constantly faced with "Physical Insecurities" as well. Everyone is vulnerable to a form of attack on a daily basis, sadly from even the law enforcement agents. "Health Insecurities" also abound, affecting youths negatively and causing death of many who would have otherwise contributed immensely to national growth and development.
I am sure you wouldn't be surprised if I add that the Government has been ineffective at tackling youth problems, however, I am particularly proud of Nigerian youths who fight to surmount these challenges daily. I am inspired by those who go the extra mile by advocating for youths in their communities and I am hopeful that despite the prevailing insecurities, I and others can survive and tell the world our inspiring African stories.
The overall objective of the national youth policy (2005) is to promote the "economic, social, cultural, intellectual and moral welfare" of youth.Read More
It focuses on: Education; Unity, reconciliation & social transformation; Poverty & unemployment; Environment; Health & Youth Protection; Culture, Sports & Leisure; Gender; Cooperation; Youth mobilisation & training.
The national youth policy (2005) is part of the Vision 2020 strategy, which incorporated the Millennium Development Goals.
According to a press release on 4 October 2012, the youth policy is currently under review. No further information could be found online.
As a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Rwanda is a signatory of The Commonwealth Plan of Action for Youth Empowerment (PAYE) 2006-2015.
Education in Botswana is free, but it is not compulsory. The Ministry of Education has authority over all of Botswana's educational structure except the University of Botswana. The educational structure mirrors that of the United Kingdom: there is universal access to primary and junior secondary school, but a process of academic selectivity reduces entrance to the senior secondary school and the university. However, educational curricula incorporate prevocational preparation in the junior and senior secondary schools.Read More
In 2001 Botswana's education system was comprised of seven years of primary education, three years of junior secondary education, and two years of senior secondary education. Each year at the primary level is a Standard, and each secondary level is a Form. This system was implemented in 1995 as a result of a 1993 National Education Commission study. Botswana's basic education program is comprised of the primary and junior secondary levels.
Primary education is the most important stage in the educational system, and the government strives to make this level of education accessible to everyone. One central objective of primary education is for children to be literate first in Setswana and then in English. Other goals are for children to become knowledgeable in mathematics and to have a command of science and social studies. From 1991 to 1997, the number of students completing the primary level and entering junior secondary increased from 65.0 percent to 98.5 percent.
Completing the Junior Certificate program may lead to admission to the senior secondary school program. Only those pupils whose grades are high enough on the Junior Certificate Examination are admitted to the senior secondary program. From 1991 to 1994, the number of students admitted to senior secondary schools increased from 28 to 34 percent. Botswana is in the process of building unified secondary schools, Form I to Form V, in the remote areas of the country to increase access to a senior secondary education. Education has been given priority in the national budget. In the 1994-1995 financial year, the Ministry of Education received 10 percent of the national budget. The Department of Secondary Education and Teacher Training and Development shared 64 percent, and the ministry headquarters, which was responsible for four projects including the University of Botswana and Brigades development, received 25 percent. The 11 percent balance was spent on improving facilities and functions under the technical education, nonformal education, curriculum development, and evaluation and special education departments. The Ministry of Education expanded from a small unit of government in 1966 to one that looks after the educational needs of hundreds of thousands students from primary to tertiary levels. In addition, the ministry writes all required textbooks. The ministry's emphasis is on training qualified teachers, developing a diversified curriculum, and expanding facilities to meet the national commitment of universal education. The concern for achieving national literacy is underscored by the fact that 40.6 percent of the country's population is under the age of 15.
Botswana's first educational policy, called Education for Kagisano (Social Harmony), guided the country's educational development and administration from 1977 to 1993. In the early 1990s, the recognition that the country's socioeconomic situation had changed significantly resulted in a review of policies and strategies for Botswana's educational development. In March 1994, the Minister of Education presented Government Paper No. 2, The Revised National Policy on Education. Its recommendations will provide direction for Botswana's educational system until 2020.
The objectives of the new policy are to review the current education system and its relevance and to identify problems and strategies for its further development in the context of Botswana's changing and complex economy; to reexamine the structure of the education system to guarantee universal access to primary and junior secondary education, while consolidating and vocationalising the curriculum content at these levels; to advise on ways to ensure the education system is sensitive and responsive to the people's wishes and the country's manpower requirements; to study the various methods of streaming into vocational and academic groups at the senior secondary level; to study how the senior secondary structure relates to the University of Botswana degree programs and to determine how the two programs may best be reconciled; to advise on the organization and diversification of the secondary school curricula to prepare students who do not continue with higher education; and to make recommendations to the government on the best and most cost-effective methods of implementing the recommendations proposed by the Ministry of Education.
The education system makes minimal provisions for children with disabilities. Few disabled children are integrated in regular school classes, and there is a limited special education curriculum. Parents must pay fees to nongovernmental organizations if their special needs children are educated. However, the government has committed to intensify efforts to educate these children by paying the nongovernmental organizations' fees.
Read more: Botswana - Educational System—overview - Secondary, Primary, Senior, and Junior - StateUniversity.com
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